Showing posts with label resuscitation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label resuscitation. Show all posts

Friday, March 13, 2020

Intravenous Fluid Lecture: Citations

I have been missing for a few weeks as I am putting the finishing touches on my lectures that are due on the 15th of this month. The amount of time and effort necessary to write a CME lecture is insane. I've written 7 of them in this last year. Voluntarily, of course. I'm not complaining. For my intravenous fluid lecture, I have cited 43 different articles listed below. I have attempted to cite these articles as well as I know how to but there will be some inevitable errors. If you plan on creating an IVF lecture of your own, this is my gift to you. My only request is that you credit me in some way, shape, or form. Ultimately, I did not write any of these articles. I have to tip my hat to everyone who contributed to the writing of all of these articles. They are the ones who did the leg work and I am ultimately piggybacking on their efforts. 

This lecture discusses the three fluids we use for resuscitation in critically ill patients: 0.9% NaCl, Lactated Ringers, and Plasma-Lyte. I go over the history of the three fluids, and also break down the contents of these fluids, based on the data on how they affect our patients and our organs, then present the relevant data on how these data changes outcomes in our critically ill patients. The reason why this is a controversial topic is because most clinicians use saline because they really do not understand what is in it, nor the effects of it. As I mention in one of my slides, if the FDA had to approve 0.9% NaCl today, chances are that it would not be approved. 

I am sorting out how to provide you all with this lecture, youtube or some other medium. The issue is that youtube has a thing for demonetizing my videos the moment I say the words "mortality", "death" and others. I do earn some income from you all visiting my website, eddyjoemd.com to check out the links and download the articles I share. Thank you all for your support! 

-EJ

Citations:


Lobo DN, Stanga Z, Aloysius MM, et al. Effect of volume loading with 1 liter intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatine (Gelofusine) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) on blood volume and endocrine responses: a randomized, three-way crossover study in healthy volunteers. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(2):464–470. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181bc80f1

Link to Abstract

Ragaller MJ, Theilen H, Koch T. Volume replacement in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12 Suppl 17:S33–S39.

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Bark BP, Persson J, Grände PO. Importance of the infusion rate for the plasma expanding effect of 5% albumin, 6% HES 130/0.4, 4% gelatin, and 0.9% NaCl in the septic rat. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(3):857–866. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318274157e

Link to Abstract

Lobo DN, Dube MG, Neal KR, Simpson J, Rowlands BJ, Allison SP. Problems with solutions: drowning in the brine of an inadequate knowledge base. Clin Nutr. 2001;20(2):125–130. doi:10.1054/clnu.2000.0154

Link to Abstract

Awad S, Allison SP, Lobo DN. The history of 0.9% saline. Clin Nutr. 2008;27(2):179–188. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2008.01.008

Link to Abstract

Lewins, Robert. Injection of Saline Solutions into the Veins. (1832). The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 6(24), 373–375.


Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Hartmann AF, Senn MJ. STUDIES IN THE METABOLISM OF SODIUM r-LACTATE. II. RESPONSE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH ACIDOSIS TO THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF SODIUM r-LACTATE. J Clin Invest. 1932;11(2):337–344. doi:10.1172/JCI100415

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Weinberg L, Collins N, Van Mourik K, Tan C, Bellomo R. Plasma-Lyte 148: A clinical review. World J Crit Care Med. 2016;5(4):235–250. Published 2016 Nov 4. doi:10.5492/wjccm.v5.i4.235

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Rizoli S. PlasmaLyte. J Trauma. 2011;70(5 Suppl):S17–S18. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31821a4d89

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Brown RM, Wang L, Coston TD, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Sepsis. A Secondary Analysis of the SMART Clinical Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200(12):1487–1495. doi:10.1164/rccm.201903-0557OC

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Li H, Sun SR, Yap JQ, Chen JH, Qian Q. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2016;17(3):181–187. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1500201

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Wilcox CS. Regulation of renal blood flow by plasma chloride. J Clin Invest. 1983;71(3):726–735. doi:10.1172/jci110820

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Quilley CP, Lin YS, McGiff JC. Chloride anion concentration as a determinant of renal vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;108(1):106–110. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1993.tb13447.x

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Chowdhury AH, Cox EF, Francis ST, Lobo DN. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 2-L infusions of 0.9% saline and plasma-lyte® 148 on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers [published correction appears in Ann Surg. 2013 Dec;258(6):1118]. Ann Surg. 2012;256(1):18–24. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318256be72

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

McCluskey SA, Karkouti K, Wijeysundera D, Minkovich L, Tait G, Beattie WS. Hyperchloremia after noncardiac surgery is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality: a propensity-matched cohort study. Anesth Analg. 2013;117(2):412–421. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318293d81e

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Myburgh JA, Mythen MG. Resuscitation fluids. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(13):1243–1251. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208627

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Noritomi DT, Soriano FG, Kellum JA, et al. Metabolic acidosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a longitudinal quantitative study. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(10):2733–2739. doi:10.1097/ccm.0b013e3181a59165

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Neyra JA, Canepa-Escaro F, Li X, et al. Association of Hyperchloremia With Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Septic Patients. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(9):1938–1944. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001161

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Suetrong B, Pisitsak C, Boyd JH, Russell JA, Walley KR. Hyperchloremia and moderate increase in serum chloride are associated with acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Crit Care. 2016;20(1):315. Published 2016 Oct 6. doi:10.1186/s13054-016-1499-7

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Modi, MP. A comparative study of impact of infusion of Ringer's Lactate solution versus normal saline on acid-base balance and serum electrolytes during live related renal transplantation.Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012 Jan;23(1):135-7.


Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Khajavi MR, Etezadi F, Moharari RS, et al. Effects of normal saline vs. lactated ringer's during renal transplantation. Ren Fail. 2008;30(5):535–539. doi:10.1080/08860220802064770

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Piper GL, Kaplan LJ. Fluid and electrolyte management for the surgical patient. Surg Clin North Am. 2012;92(2):189–vii. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2012.01.004

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Andersen LW, Mackenhauer J, Roberts JC, Berg KM, Cocchi MN, Donnino MW. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(10):1127–1140. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.06.012

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Ichai C, Orban JC, Fontaine E. Sodium lactate for fluid resuscitation: the preferred solution for the coming decades?. Crit Care. 2014;18(4):163. Published 2014 Jul 7. doi:10.1186/cc13973

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Farkas, Josh. “Three myths about Plasmalyte, Normosol, and LR” https://emcrit.org/pulmcrit/three-myths-about-plasmalyte-normosol-and-lr/\.1/26/15


Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Nalos M, Leverve XM, Huang SJ, Weisbrodt L, Parkin R, Seppelt IM, Ting I, Mclean AS: Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart failure: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Crit Care 2014, 18:R48.


Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Weinberg L, Collins N, Van Mourik K, Tan C, Bellomo R. Plasma-Lyte 148: A clinical review. World J Crit Care Med. 2016;5(4):235–250. Published 2016 Nov 4. doi:10.5492/wjccm.v5.i4.235

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article


Spriet I, Lagrou K, Maertens J, Willems L, Wilmer A, Wauters J. Plasmalyte: No Longer a Culprit in Causing False-Positive Galactomannan Test Results. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(3):795–797. doi:10.1128/JCM.02813-15

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Stocker RA. "Normal" Saline and Co: What Is Normal?. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(12):2282–2283. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002030

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Zampieri FG, Ranzani OT, Azevedo LC, Martins ID, Kellum JA, Libório AB. Lactated Ringer Is Associated With Reduced Mortality and Less Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(12):2163–2170. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001948

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Shaw AD, Bagshaw SM, Goldstein SL, et al. Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte. Ann Surg. 2012;255(5):821–829. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31825074f5

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Gupta RG, Hartigan SM, Kashiouris MG, Sessler CN, Bearman GM. Early goal-directed resuscitation of patients with septic shock: current evidence and future directions. Crit Care. 2015;19(1):286. Published 2015 Aug 28. doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1011-9

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Ince C, Groeneveld AB. The case for 0.9% NaCl: is the undefendable, defensible?. Kidney Int. 2014;86(6):1087–1095. doi:10.1038/ki.2014.193

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Hammond NE, Taylor C, Saxena M, et al. Resuscitation fluid use in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units between 2007 and 2013. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41(9):1611–1619. doi:10.1007/s00134-015-3878-y

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Mahler SA, Conrad SA, Wang H, Arnold TC. Resuscitation with balanced electrolyte solution prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(6):670–674. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.02.004

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

McFarlane C, Lee A. A comparison of Plasmalyte 148 and 0.9% saline for intra-operative fluid replacement. Anaesthesia. 1994;49(9):779–781. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1994.tb04450.x

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Young JB, Utter GH, Schermer CR, et al. Saline versus Plasma-Lyte A in initial resuscitation of trauma patients: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2014;259(2):255–262. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318295feba

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Young P, Bailey M, Beasley R, et al. Effect of a Buffered Crystalloid Solution vs Saline on Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The SPLIT Randomized Clinical Trial [published correction appears in JAMA. 2015 Dec 15;314(23):2570]. JAMA. 2015;314(16):1701–1710. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12334

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Noncritically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):819–828. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711586

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article

Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):829–839. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711584

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article


Young PJ. Balanced Crystalloids or 0.9% Saline in Sepsis. Beyond Reasonable Doubt?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200(12):1456–1458. doi:10.1164/rccm.201908-1669ED

Link to Abstract


Link to FULL FREE Article


Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Can We Use Something Other Than Lactate To Guide Resuscitation?

Nurses: you see those orders. q1, q2, q4h lactates to help guide resuscitation in septic shock. You have to drop what you're doing and draw labs. Hopefully, if the patient is sick enough to need the labs, they have a central line. Hold off of titrating drips, hold off on the ever important charting you are required to do, let's trend lactates which I have previously discussed the utility of (or lack of utility). Along the way we contribute to iatrogenic anemia, spend a bunch of lab money, etc.

What if there was another option? Well, the ANDROMEDA-SHOCK trial proves that you can intelligently resuscitate patients without checking lactate levels. What they did was randomize >400pts to either have their resuscitation guided by lactate or this nifty little trick called Capillary Refill Time.

One of my favorite parts of the trial wasn't even the CRT vs. lactate component but their algorithm to determine fluid responsiveness which is a major interest of mine. I am not a fan of arbitrarily giving a pt liter after liter of fluid to "clear lactate" or improve the blood pressure. That just does not work and my body of work has data to prove that. I digress. Sometimes you need to read the supplementary materials in these articles as their algorithm was hidden in there.

Standard of care by CMS (the body that pays the hospitals and therefore us in the US) has mandated checking lactates despite no good evidence that trending it does much. This study shows that checking CRT is AT LEAST as good as checking lactate levels. The mortality was not statistically significant (p=0.06) but I wonder what would've happened if they would've had an additional 200pts in the trial. The CRT group had 34.9% mortality vs 43.4% in the lactate group. The CRT group also had fewer organ failures (p=0.045). Other fun facts include the fact that the lactate group received more fluids in the first 8h (p=0.01) but not overall. I don't know what to make of this.

All in all, even with its limitations, I feel this is a solid study. I really like it. I do not use CRT in my practice but I may be asking for a microscope slide to keep in my pocket in the upcoming weeks.

A hat tip to the authors

Hernandez G, Ospina‐Tascon GA, Damiani LP, Estenssoro E, Dubin A, Hurtado J, et al. Effect of a resuscitation strategy targeting peripheral perfusion status vs serum lactate levels on 28‐day mortality among patients with septic shock: the ANDROMEDA‐SHOCK randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019;321(7):654–64.


- EJ




Link to FULL FREE ARTICLE

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Elevated Lactate Does Not Equal More Fluids

There is a law of diminishing returns when resuscitating patients with bolus after bolus of IV fluids.

Yes, lactate decreased with additional boluses by 1.3% per every 7.5mg/kg increase in fluids making the numbers look pretty, but does that mean we're treating the source of the lactate or are we just diluting it? This study shows that mortality actually increases as we keep providing more fluids.

I’m not saying that patients who are in septic shock do not need fluids. On the contrary, they need judicious use of IV fluids and 30cc/kg initial resuscitation is okay with me in the vast majority of patients. I had to read many articles to finally fall in line with that. Of course there are several patient populations where I’m against it. For example, severe pulmonary hypertension patients with right hearts living on a tight rope. I digress. But tagging along with my prior post discussing giving fluid boluses reflexively, this study shows that fluids don’t really “clear” lactate in the way we all hope and want them to. The correlation of having an elevated lactate to mortality is there. The correlation with more fluids making lactate decrease isn’t. The pathophysiology behind where lactate comes from explains why not. And as we all should know, fluids are not benign. The more fluids we give patients the higher the mortality per the 9000 that were assessed in this study.
A 🎩 tip to the authors. .


Liu V, Morehouse JW, Soule J, Whippy A, Escobar GJ. Fluid volume, lactate values, and mortality in sepsis patients with intermediate lactate values. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013;10:466–73.



FREE FULL ARTICLE

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Don't give fluids just because the lactate is elevated.

Lactate is elevated? (without assessing the patient) Give a fluid bolus.

Wait, WHAT?!?!? Whyyyy? 😫

This is something I routinely see today. I routinely saw it at the Ivory Tower where I trained in fellowship. I routinely did it myself when I was a young whipper snapper of a resident and didn't know any better. Now, I'm here to tell you that you can do better.

I don't blame you for doing this, though. You've seen other clinicians do it. You were likely trained this way. The nurses have been trained this way. When the lactate is elevated, page the doctor and expect an order for a fluid bolus. It makes one feel all warm and fuzzy inside like "I did something". Everyone pats themselves on the back. Well I'm here to tell you that from now on, every time you do that, you're more likely to be wrong in your management that right.

This article which describes the "lacto-bolus reflex", i.e. to give a bolus of fluid for every elevated lactate. The authors are just as fed up about it as I am. IV fluid boluses are not benign. Fortunately, this article is completely free (I like finding you all full free articles) and it describes why the whole idea of patients developing a lactic acidosis due to cells not getting oxygen hypoperfusion is silly to the point where many of us need to be re-educated. I will admit, I had to be re-educated myself. I was not born knowing this stuff. I used to do it wrong. Now I'm trying to do it right.

The article is easy to read, for those of you who choose to dive further into it. Ultimately, they conclude that, although lactate levels are helpful for prognosis (plenty of data on that), and lactate not going away is helpful to know whether you have control of your patient or not, it ultimately does not help in any way, shape, or form, to guide fluid resuscitation. A 🎩 tip to the authors.


-EJ



Link to Article

Link to FULL FREE PDF

Spiegel R, Gordon D, Marik PE. The origins of the Lacto-Bolo reflex: the mythology of lactate in sepsis. J Thorac Dis 2020;12(Suppl 1):S48-S53.


Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Lactate is an Alarm, not a Treatment.

I need to eat my words on this one, because now there's data to show that there's a benefit to rechecking lactate levels in septic patients, but not for the reasons why one would think.

During my rounds over the course of the weekend, I recall telling several nurses that there's no data to suggest that trending lactates changes outcomes. This study, which came out last night, tells me I was wrong in saying that. A close examination of the data will show that it has nothing to do with the lactate itself, but rather the fact that the clinicians are prompted to "do something" in response to a number that makes us uncomfortable.

Okay, so the lactic acid is elevated. You're going to do one or two or all three of the following:
a. start vasopressors
b. start antibiotics
c. give more fluids

That's the kicker, we don't know which of those interventions, or combination of which, are what decreased mortality. Maybe it just means that someone gave these patients more attention. It certainly just wasn't the "checking the lactate" part. Lactate is just an alarm of sorts, we still need to be clinicians. I will suggest, though, that earlier initiation of antibiotics plays the most important role in decreasing mortality as there's already data suggesting that earlier antibiotics leads to improved outcomes. I personally start vasopressors pretty early and will share data in the upcoming weeks as to why I do that in my practice. Giving more fluids is only useful if the patients is fluid responsive, you know, if you can prove that giving that fluid will increase the cardiac index/output or increase the stroke volume. Giving fluids just to make the blood pressure go up arbitrarily is just plain dumb. It's 2019. We're better than that.

Ultimately, early lactate measurement did not improve outcomes, nurses relaying the information to the doctors, ARNP's, or PA's did.

-EJ



Link to FULL FREE PDF

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Fluid Resuscitation of Trauma Patients: 0.9%NaCl (saline) or Plasma-lyte?

I am not a trauma surgeon. I am not a trauma physician. I do not take care of trauma patients in my current practice. I did several rotations in the trauma intensive care unit during my fellowship training but by know means am I going to pretend to have the knowledge that my colleagues who do that every day have. The study I am going to be discussing today is a pilot study.

The authors were concerned about the metabolic acidosis that occurs from the elevated chloride concentrations in 0.9% NaCl which is 154mmol/L. Remember, reference values in the lab for chloride levels are between 98 and 109mmol/L. Also, there is data suggesting that an increase in chloride levels by just 5mmol/L could have deleterious effects on our patients. This hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is not something new, we've known about its effects on the kidneys for decades now. I guess we've just been ignoring it.

I am a fan of whole blood to resuscitate trauma patients, but I my knowledge on the matter is weak. At the time being, patients receive a significant amount of crystalloids for resuscitation. The authors chose to use NS and plasma-lyte due to the fact that lactated ringers is contraindicated with blood products as it allows the blood to coagulate as it goes in due to the calciums effect on citrate.

Surgeons are trained, from my experience, to focus on base excess. When a patient you're taking care of them is sick, and you're giving them a call to give them the heads up of what's going on, one of the first questions you need to be prepared to answer is "what is the base deficit"? Plasma-lyte is a balanced salt solution that I have reviewed numerous times on instagram, my website, and youtube. Plenty of resources out there from me explaining this fluid. This focus on base excess is why they made this

They ended up with 46 patients enrolled in the study.

Plasma-lyte corrected the base deficit faster than 0.9% NaCl. Primary outcome achieved. Patients reached and remained in their normal acid-base physiology longer.

They also found that 0.9% NaCl leads to hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, decreased serum bicarb levels, and worse base deficit.

Patients also had increased urine output with plasma-lyte compared to saline solution. There is some concern about whether gluconate causes some sort of increased urine production but this is not specified in this paper.

Some institutions worry about the added cost of plasma-lyte, which is approximately $1 on top of the cost of NS or LR depending on the institution and their contract. This study showed that providing plasma-lyte kept serum magnesium levels closer to normal (p=0.007). If you are a bean counter, you could potentially save some money by using plasma-lyte due to less cost of magnesium replacement. I may be stretching a bit but at least I am admitting that I'm stretching. The patients needed about 4gm of Mg in the NS group and no replacement in the PL group. I take back the part of me stretching. The authors state that the difference at their institution of cost between NS and PL is $0.76. 2gm of magnesium is $5.19. That means that PL may end up saving money and additional testing.

All in all, this is a pilot study. I have not personally seen the actual study. If you all have, feel free to correct me. This is not a full free article, unfortunately.

-EJ








Link to Abstract

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Monday, September 30, 2019

Cordis vs MAC Introducer: What is the difference between the two?

This is a topic better handled by Surgeons than myself but I haven't seen anyone do it. Here I go! @buckparker, you're invited to chime in at this party, bud. @physiciandoodles inspired me to create this post.

Quick! This patient needs to be resuscitated with blood STAT! Call for the massive transfusion protocol and grab me a Cordis STAT! Do you know what this means? Do you know what it means if they asked for an introducer? For many years I was confused myself. I mean, aren't they both just large bore central lines for the purpose of infusion blood quickly or floating a central line? Well yes, they are. But depending on what institution you work at, you may get a funny look on your face if you ask for it by the non-standard name. Non-standard for that institution, of course. I will make this clear, though, as I posted this earlier in the life of my instagram page. You can get A LOT done in a massive bleed with two solid 16 gauge peripheral IVs. Many times you do not need to puny central line. But there are times when patients mean business and they needs all and a catheter of this type is necessary. Okay, let's get started.

First of all, the MAC introducer. This is a proprietary product from Arrow/Teleflex. MAC is a trademarked name that stands for multi-lumen catheter. You may say to yourself, well Eddy, a triple lumen catheter should be a MAC line too! You're not wrong, but we can't make this already challenging job easier on ourselves, right? MAC introducers can come with anywhere from one to three lumens. You could float a swan through many of them, but not all. It is essentially like a "Cordis" but it could have another line. The MAC also has the dilator in the catheter as my colleague Zahid, @zvhvd, pointed out.




A "Cordis" is also an introducer, but the word Cordis is the brand name of the product. A Cordis is the same introducer, but only has one side port. You can also float a swan through this puppy. 





There are other manufacturers who make similar products that I am not going to cover here for the sake of time. Your friendly neighborhood ICU should have one of these introducers in stock. Familiarize yourself with where it is because the day you need it, the patient NEEDS it.

- EJ

Photo credits for Arrow/Teleflex Products

Photo credits for Cordis Products

Copyright gods: If the photos posted upset you, let me know and I will take them off. Just trying to teach here.

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

IV Fluids Types: Do you know your -ish?

Problems with solutions: drowning in the brine of an inadequate knowledge base

More than 50% of residents do not know how much sodium is in 0.9% NaCl. I know you do, though... it's 154mmol/L. Far more than our "normal" of 140mmol/L.
Why do I nag so much with intravenous fluids and what's in them? Truth be told, I did not know my fluid composition as well as I should have even as an intern. I had an ICU attending, a mentor, now someone I'm fortunate to call a colleague, who would pimp the house staff on IV fluids and make us feel ashamed if we didn't know the answer. He was right. My embarrassment was deserved. After all, these are substances that we are mindlessly pouring into our patients. The vast majority of clinicians, I'm not even talking about nurses, I AM REFERRING TO US DOCTORS, do not know what's in these bags that are so easy to click in the EMR and order. We mindlessly just do it. I was embarrassed. I do not want you to feel the same way. I have been teaching fluids now for 4 years. It's one of my passions. I have a talk that is complete and can present at any time of the day. I know it well. But I am always reading and adding to it. The talk is going to be one of the lectures I will be presenting in Hawaii in May of 2020. It will also be presented to the Department of Anesthesia at my hospital on October 20th of this year. I am currently brushing up that talk, adding and subtracting some things, and I ran into this study from 2001 which asked preregistration house officers and senior house officers (I guess that means interns and residents) about the composition of fluids amongst other things. I won't go over the methodology but the training needs to start in medical school. Overall, 11.5% said their training in the matter was poor, 22% stated it was unsatisfactory. I have to agree with this 100%. I received ZERO training in med school regarding IVF. Since it's something so ubiquitous in our daily practice of medicine, it's something we need to do better. A lot better. If you are in medical school or residency, have you been trained in the composition of IV Fluids?

-EJ



Link to the Abstract

Lobo, D.N., Dube, M.G., Neal, K.R., et al., 2001. Problems with solutions: drowning in the brine of an inadequate knowledge base. Clin. Nutr., 20(2):125-130.

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Fluid responsiveness: how to predict

If your way of determining whether a patient is fluid responsive or not is to see if the blood pressure went up after giving a bolus, you are doing it WRONG! You need to stop, take a deep breath, and reassess your way of thinking about fluid responsiveness. This (FREE!) article dives into why fluids should not be provided arbitrarily go make us feel good inside and make us feel like we at least "did something" in response to that low mean arterial pressure. No, I do not use SBP and DBP off of the BP cuff in my practice. More on that at another time. This article also goes briefly into why we should not be checking CVP (duh). Bottom line is that we can't accurately predict fluid responsiveness without an arterial line and some sort of device to predict stroke volume, stroke volume variation, cardiac index/output. You could have some really good echo nunchuck skills as well. This study also emphasizes why looking at IVC variations is not the best test. Ultimately, we all need to get better at this, myself included. I feel that this article is particularly important for nurses as you all are the ones who relay the BP concerns to the clinicians essentially ordering the fluids. These three authors are legends of critical care. A real treat that Annals of Intensive Care published this for free.

This article is going to be part of the bibliography for the talk I will be giving in Portland, OR in August of 2020.

-EJ

Monnet, X., Marik, P.E. & Teboul, J. Prediction of fluid responsiveness: an update. Ann. Intensive Care 6, 111 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-016-0216-7




Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Sunday, August 4, 2019

Balanced Crystalloids Versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis



Link to Abstract

I honestly wonder how much data is enough data to change some minds. This is why I am counting on you all, people who are trying to keep up with this flurry of data to the best of your ability, to go through medical school, residency, possibly fellowship with a healthy respect for 0.9% saline solution. It may seem like it's hopeless from time to time to change decades worth of practice. Heck, my first IVF resuscitation video is almost 2.5 years old and has almost 39000 views! Hopefully the studies which will be published within the upcoming 2 years will hit the nail on the head. You can see the data from the slides, using saline versus balanced salt solutions increased mortality in the critically ill, increased acute kidney injury, and kept the patients on the ventilator for a longer period of time. To those harping about the increased costs of one fluid versus the next, consider the cost of one ventilator day. Consider the risks involved with each day on the vent. Consider the financial strain from working up every-single-case of AKI. This stuff adds up, colleagues. Anyway. A hat tip to the authors! 


- EJ







Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.