Showing posts with label noninvasive ventilation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label noninvasive ventilation. Show all posts

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Do Not Resuscitate/Do Not Intubate does NOT mean Do Not Do Anything.


Nasal high flow oxygen therapy in do-not-intubate patients with hypoxemic respiratory distress

This topic is very dear to me because I am a huuuuuuuge proponent for appropriate end of life care. I'm an Intensivist after all and people unfortunately die on my service. We all are going to have our day. My goal with the patients I take care of is to make their passing to the next life as comfortable as possible with as much love surrounding the individual as humanly possible. It irks me at times when clinicians write patients off just because they have a DNR/DNI order written. For the non-medical people around here that means do not resuscitate/do not intubate. Also, what are you doing around here? Those patients also need our best efforts as they are already cognizant of their impending mortality. That usually means their friends and family members are also aware and would rather be around when the inevitable to all of us occurs and they pass. In this article, the authors attempted to avoid utilizing non-invasive ventilation, or as most of us just call it, BiPAP, by placing patients on high flow nasal cannula. Small study, 50 patients. Can you imagine the difficulty in enrolling patients into a study like this? It must have been quite challenging. In short, although mortality in hospital was appropriately high, they found that they were able to avoid placing patients on BiPAP in 82% of patients. To me, this is particularly important because that means these patients were able to comfort eat, speak to their families, say their goodbyes, give them unobstructed hugs (due to the BiPAP mask), kisses, and smiles without a NIV mask in the way. The decreased RR as a clinician to me is significant because if there's one thing that makes me uncomfortable, it's a patient who is in frank respiratory distress sucking wind to survive. A respiratory rate decrease from 30.6 to 24.7 is something I'd take any day. This is something I do in my practice. I was very happy to run into their article and find some data to support what I anecdotally believed.

A hat tip to the authors.

-EJ





Peters S, Holets S, Gay P. Nasal high flow oxygen therapy in do-not-intubate patients with hypoxemic respiratory distress. Respir Care. 2013 ; 58(4): 597-600.

Link to abstract

Link to full FREE article

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Friday, August 30, 2019

Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in respiratory failure: the guidelines

Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines: noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure.
Want to know which patients to use BiPAP on? This guideline published in the American Thoracic Society journal in conjunction with the European Respiratory Society in 2017 provides some good answers for the most common questions we all encounter in our daily practice.
Should NIV be used in COPD exacerbation?
Should NIV be used in ARF due to a COPD exacerbation to prevent the development of respiratory acidosis?
Should NIV be used in established acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to a COPD exacerbation?
Should NIV be used in ARF due to cardiogenic pulmonary oedema?
Should NIV be used in ARF due to acute asthma?
Should NIV be used for ARF in immunocompromised patients?
Should NIV be used in de novo ARF?
Should NIV be used in ARF in the post-operative setting?
Should NIV be used in patients with ARF receiving palliative care?
Should NIV be used in ARF due to chest trauma?
Should NIV be used to prevent respiratory failure post-extubation?
Should NIV be used in the treatment of respiratory failure that develops post-extubation?
Should NIV be used to facilitate weaning patients from invasive mechanical ventilation?
Fortunately, this article is free for you to download. The link is below.





Link to FREE article

Rochwerg B, Brochard L, Elliott MW, et al. Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines: noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Eur Respir J 2017; 50: 1602426

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

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Saturday, July 20, 2019

Meta-analysis: Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema



Link to the Abstract

This happens every single day at every shop I’ve worked at. Patient comes in with a CHF exacerbation sucking wind. You feel you have a little bit of wiggle room and don’t have to intubate them, while at the same time they’re too sick for nasal cannula or high flow. What do you reach for? The “BiPAP” machine! Now, just for clarification, the nomenclature is all wonky for this machine and its settings which is a different post all in itself. BiPAP is when you have a difference between the IPAP and EPAP settings while CPAP is when the IPAP and EPAP settings are the same. Being a good clinician; #physician or #respiratorytherapist, what you need to do is spend some time at the bedside hanging out with your patient to make sure you find the sweet spot that’s comfortable for them. Sometimes it’s easy, sometimes it’s impossible and they need to be intubated. This meta-analysis shows that pts who get placed on the #CPAP setting do better than those placed on #BiPAP setting with decreased mortality. A 🎩 tip to the authors.

Monday, June 10, 2019

High-Flow Nasal Cannula in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: A Review of the FLORALI Trial

High-Flow Oxygen through Nasal Cannula in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure

I first shared this article in June of 2019 on Instagram when my account had a mere 2500 followers. Since then the amount of followers to my account have skyrocketed and I could not have done it without the help of each and every one of you who find value in what I do.
As an aside, many of you know I'm preparing a lecture on high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation. This article is one of the landmark trials in the HFNC literature and it's worth revisiting in greater detail. After all, I wasn't taking articles apart in as much depth several months ago as I am now. The name by which this study is commonly referred to is the FLORALI trial, as in high FLow Oxygen therapy in Resuscitation of patients with Acute Lung Injury. Witty, huh? The authors had noted that there weren't any studies looking at non-invasive ventilation in patients who were in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure that were not hypercapnic. They went ahead to detail all the beneficial effects of HFNC which I have beat you all over the head with on this medium. They went ahead and designed a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to see which worked best to avoid intubations and improve outcomes in patients who were in hypoxemic respiratory failure: NIV, HFNC, or standard oxygen therapy which I will herein refer to as SOT.
They chose to enroll patients who were sick, but not too sick. After all, you need to enroll patients and keep them safe at the same time. If you choose patients who are too sick, then clinicians aren't going to follow the study protocol. They had a strict protocol as well to intubate patients so that patients wouldn't be left lingering without being intubated. After all, there is clear data that if you wait too long to intubate, patients do poorly and there is increased mortality. They included patients who were hypoxemic with a PF ratio < 300, needing a flow of 10L, a PaCO2 < 45 (so no COPD exacerbation patients here) and no chronic respiratory failure. Asthmatics were also excluded, as well as cardiogenic pulmonary edema, use of vasopressors, and hemodynamic instability. They had other parameters but you can check out the article for yourself.
Patients were randomized at 1:1:1 for SOT (nonrebreather at flow of 10L), HFNC (50L of flow and FiO2 titrated), and NIV (pressure support titrated to obtain a tidal volume of 7-10cc/kg ideal body weight and a PEEP between 2-10cmH2O).
When you look at the characteristics of the patients enrolled, and they enrolled 310 of them, the vast majority had pneumonia with a predominance of community acquired followed by healthcare associated pneumonia.
The primary outcome was rates of intubation. There was no difference if you just look at the direct comparison p-value of 0.18. When you look at the patients who had a PF ratio less than 200, though, the patients with HFNC did MUCH better with p-value of 0.009. This is your indication, team! You have someone with pneumonia, don't put the on NIV when HFNC may work better!
Fewer patients died in the ICU if they were to receive HFNC versus the other two (p=0.047).
There was also improved 90 day survival in the HFNC group (p=0.02). This was enough info, and more in the article that you really should read for yourself, to convince many ED and ICU practitioners that HFNC is the way to go in this patient population. Check the article out for yourself!


- EJ






FREE FULL PDF with an account

Frat JP, Thille AW, Mercat A, Girault C, Ragot S, Perbet S, et al.; FLORALI Study Group; REVA Network. High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2015;372:2185–2196.

Although great care has been taken to ensure that the information in this post is accurate, eddyjoemd, LLC shall not be held responsible or in any way liable for the continued accuracy of the information, or for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom.

Check out some resources I have personally found value in and recommend over at my My Amazon Store. This is an affiliate link which means that I may make a small commission if you make any purchase on Amazon after clicking on a product, you do not even have to purchase something I recommended. Thank you for supporting my work.