Saturday, February 22, 2020

Guidelines for Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium in the ICU

I am currently working on a lecture where I discuss reducing the utilization of opioids in the ICU for our critically ill patients. The sources of pain are plentiful, unfortunately. Truth is, opioids are the best option for our patients at the time of this writing but we also need to work hard to try to minimize the exposure to this family of medications via alternatives. Which alternatives might you ask? In particular, I have taken deep dives into the utilization of ketamine, magnesium, gabapentin/pregabalin, NSAIDS, nefopam, acetaminophen, dexmedetomidine, as well as regional blocks performed by our anesthesia colleagues. 


The PADIS (pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption) guidelines linked here, and are completely FREE to download, provide some direction as to how to better take care of our patients. When I write these lectures, and this may seem counterintuitive to some, I leave the guidelines for last and attempt to read everything under the sun on the topic so that it does not cloud my interpretation. I had read these guidelines in 2018 when they initially came out but now I have even more respect for the section on pain management bc the quality of the studies just aren't as good as we want them to be. Hence the "very low quality of evidence" tied to many of the recommendations made. I surprised that they even made a dosing recommendation for ketamine as the dosing behind most of the articles are pretty scattered.  
These guidelines are a monumental undertaking and I send a definite hat tip to the authors.

Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, GĂ©linas C, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med 2018;46:e825–e873.

-EJ




Link to FULL FREE Article



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